EM Online offers an Evidence Based approach to treating pain in the Emergency Department and will include critical appraisals of original articles and reviews.

The database of EM Online is supposed to be extensively growing as new research and new topics are being added. 

I would love to hear your input. If you would like to see a certain topic on the site, please leave your comments at the feedback form below.


Hi there!

It's great to see you found my website!

My name is Milan Ridderikhof. I've been working as an Emergency Physician in a large University Hospital in The Netherlands since 2009 and always had a special interest in optimizing pain management. I started doing some research back in 2012 and eventually this ended up in successfully defending my PhD Thesis on 'pain management in adult patients with acute traumatic injuries', last year in 2019.

The EM Online project was created to make an oversight of available ED-pain relevant literature. 

I guess I'll be looking for the optimal format over the next few months, years or maybe decades...

Till then, if you have any tips or tricks, please let me know in the feedback section.

Thanks and I hope you'll enjoy EM Online!

Oh, and please follow EM Online on Facebook, Twitter or Instagram!

Thanks again!

Milan Ridderikhof, MD PhD


Added on October 15th 2020

Always wanted to know what pain score to use in the Emergency Department? Curious whether NRS or VAS pain scoring tools differ in superiority?

Or maybe you are wondering what the evidence is regarding minimal clinically significant differences in pain scores?


A new topic has been added to the website!


Go to the heading 'Pain Measurement' to learn everything about pain scoring tools in the Emergency Department!

Added on September 7th 2020
The introduction video of EM Online is online!
Check it out below!
EM Online

 The goal of EM Online is to share knowledge about Evidence Based Emergency Medicine pain management. As this is not fully represented in most Emergency Medicine teaching programs (for physicians as well as for nursing staff) it definitely needs more attention. Besides, a lot of ED pain research is still being published under paid medical journal subscriptions and not available to everybody!

Over time, I will collect as many Emergency Medicine pain literature as possible, including review-like oversights on several aspects of pain management in the ED.