The original studies that are presented here on EM Online were selected using the search engines Medline (utilizing PubMed), Cochrane and Embase.

Additionally, they have been critically appraised using several evidence based tools and information will be updated and new content added over time.

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The evidence based tools used for critical appraisal are:


- The OCEBM levels of evidence and the subsequent levels of recommendations

- The guidelines, tools and checklists as recommend by the Equator Network:

      CONSORT checklist for randomized controlled trials

      PRISMA checklist for systematic reviews

      STROBE checklist for observational studies (cohort, cross-sectional and case-control


- The Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions